Saturday, 31 July 2021, 8:36 PM
Site: Flinders Learning Online
Topic: FLO Staff Support (FLO_Staff_Support)
Glossary: How-to glossary

Styles and layout - book (resource)

book iconThis entry relates to styles and layout. A book is classified as a 'resource' in FLO.

A FLO book is an organisational tool that allows you to structure your topic in a meaningful way that may reduce scrolling on the topic homepage. Students are able to see the relational elements in your topic (e.g. key information, module content) in one convenient place, and can print if they need to.

The book tool enables a teacher to create a multi-page resource in a book-like format, with chapters and sub-chapters. Books can contain media files as well as text, and are useful for displaying lengthy information which can be broken down ('chunked') into sections.

You could use a book to display reading material for individual modules of study, or as a showcase portfolio of student work.

Create a book and add chapters

Create a book
  1. Turn editing on and click on Add an activity or resource
    Add an activity or resource

  2.  Click on the Book iconbook icon

  3. Give your book a Name and Description

    Name and Description

  4. In the Appearance section, decide on the book's chapter format and style of navigation (the prompts they use to move from one book chapter to the next)
    Appearance tab

  5. Click Save and display

  6. Give your first chapter a Title and enter content. To improve navigation, keep the chapter title concise.
    book title and content

  7. Click Save changes

Add chapters

  1. In the book, locate the Table of Contents block 

  2. Click on the Add new chapter icon +
    book chapter - add

  3. Give the new chapter a title and enter content. To improve navigation, keep the chapter title concise.

  4. Click Save changes

Edit/delete a book chapter

  1. In the book, locate the Table of contents block

  2. If you haven't already done so, Turn editing on

  3. Locate the chapter you want to edit, and click the Edit chapter (cog) icon
    edit book chapter

  4. Edit the chapter title and content, and click Save changes

  5. To delete a chapter, click the Delete chapter (bin) icon
    delete a book chapter

Print a book or chapter

  1. Click on the Actions menu (cog) icon in the top right corner of the page, then either select Print book to print the whole book or Print this chapter to print the chapter you currently have open.
    Book administration > Print book

  2. A new window will open with a copy of the whole book or chapter. Click the Print link in the top-right corner of the screen.
    Print or Change destination

  3. The print settings for your computer will now open. Edit the printing settings as/if needed and then click on the Print button to print the book/chapter.

    If you have a PDF program installed, you can change the printer to Adobe PDF and the book/chapter you have selected will print as a single PDF file

Styles and layout - create a stealth activity/resource

This entry relates to styles and layout

A stealth activity is an activity that is hidden from students but accessible if you have a link to it. Watch this video explaining stealth activities (duration 2.44 mins): 

Note that the layout in this video is quite different to FLO, but the principles are the same.

Changing stealth settings from the front page of a topic

  1. Turn editing on in your topic

  2. For the activity/resource you want to stealth, in the Edit drop-down menu select Hide
    hide activity

    The activity/resource will now show as Hidden from students
    Hidden from students

  3. For the same activity/resource, return to the Edit drop-down menu. This time, select Make available
    make available

  4. The activity/resource will now show as Available but not shown on topic page. When a student visits the page, they will not see the activity/resource but if you provide a link to it, they will be able to access it
    available but not shown

Changing stealth settings from an edit settings page

Alternatively, if you are editing the settings of an activity or resource:

  1. Open the Common module settings section

  2. Go to the Availability menu and select Make available but not shown on topic page.

  3. The activity/resource will now show as Available but not shown on topic page. When a student visits the page, they will not see the activity/resource but if you provide a link to it, they will be able to access it

Styles and layout - file (resource)

file iconThis entry relates to styles and layout. A file is classified as a 'resource' in FLO.

Files are an organisational/layout feature in your topic. You may want to store key files in one place so that students can access them quickly.

You can provide a file (eg PDF, Word doc, image) as a topic resource. The file may include supporting files, for example, an HTML file may have embedded images. Students need to have the appropriate software on their computers in order to open the file. Ensure that the files are of reasonable file size to reduce upload/download times - see Optimise files for tips to reduce file size.

Do not upload third party or published material (including journal articles, book chapters etc.) directly to FLO. These should instead be added to your Readings so the Library can meet licensing and legal requirements.

Upload a file

Uploading (adding) a file to your FLO site is an easy process. You can either upload the file to:

  • your FLO site homepage 
    The file will show on the homepage (as a link with file type and size)
  • a page/book chapter
    The file will show as a link only (this may be a design consideration re students finding the file easily)

Upload a file to your FLO site homepage

There are two ways to upload a file to your topic's homepage. Once you have added the file, it will show in the week or module that you have added it to.

Drag and drop a file

You are able to use drag and drop to upload a file into any module within your topic. Drag and drop is available on most modern browsers (eg Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer).

  1. Turn editing on 
    The following message should appear at the top of your topic homepage (but if it doesn't you should still be able to drag and drop files):
    drag and drop files

  2. Navigate to the module you want to upload a file into
  3. Drag the file from your computer and drop into the module you wish to upload the file into  
    Note: By default, files are uploaded to the bottom of the module. Once uploaded, the file can be moved
    add files here

  4. Click on the Edit menu and select Edit settings to edit the file.
    file - appearance
    Decide on the Appearance of the file: the default settings are Display: New window, with Show size and Show typeticked (eg 86.5KB PDF document)

    file - appearance

    This is how it will look on your FLO site homepage:
    file example

    Add a file
    1. Turn editing on      

    2. Go to the module where you would like the file to appear 

    3. Click on Add an activity or resource, then select File     

    4. You will be taken to the Adding a new file screen where you can set the parameters of your file  

    5. Fill in the Name, Description (optional), and upload (or click and drag) the file into the Select files box  

    6. Click Save and display

    Upload a file to a page or book chapter
    1. Edit the applicable page or book chapter 

    2. Highlight some text you want to hyperlink to 

    3. In the HTML toolbar, click on the Link icon 
      link to a file method 

    4. Tick the Open in new window box. If you don’t, users will need to use the Back arrow in the browser toolbar to return to the original screen (the page or book chapter) 

      Click on the Browse repositories... button to choose a file to upload
      browse repositories
    5. On your computer, select and open the file, then click the Upload this file button  

    Styles and layout - folder (resource)

    folder iconThis entry relates to styles and layout. A folder is classified as a 'resource' in FLO.

    A FLO folder is an organisational tool that allows you to structure your topic in a meaningful way that may reduce scrolling on the topic page. Students are able to see relational files (eg assessment information) in one convenient place. Examples of folder use: 

    • a series of files in one module (eg a set of past examination papers in pdf format or a collection of image files for use in student projects)
    • a shared uploading space for teachers on the topic page (keeping the folder hidden so that only teachers can see it).

    Steps for setting up a folder/s in your topic site:

    Create a folder

    1. Turn editing on 
    2. Go to the module you would like the folder to appear

    3. Click Add an activity or resource
      Add an activity or resource

    4. Select Folder 
      folder icon
    5. Add a Name and Description
      Folder name and description

    6. In the Content section, you can add individual files into the folder either by dragging and dropping into the Files box or clicking the Add... icon and uploading from the File picker (eg browse for files on your computer)

      Add files

    7. Click Save and display

    Create a subfolder

    Once you have created a folder, you can create a subfolder/s. (Note: You can add a subfolder/s when you create a folder):

    1. Click into your folder
    2. Click the Edit button
    3. Click on the Create folder icon and give your subfolder a meaningful name


    Add a zip file, then unzip (and move to a subfolder)

    A zipped folder may be uploaded and unzipped for display, or an empty folder created and files uploaded into it.

    1. Click into your folder
    2. Click the Edit button
    3. Choose your zip file (this might consist of a series of documents such as PDFs that you have zipped up). Either click the Add... icon to browse for the file on your computer, or drag and drop the file into the Files box 
      zip files
    4. Once the file is uploaded, you can unzip it by clicking on the zip file icon
      zip files

    5. Select the option Unzip 

      unzip files 

    6. Your files should now appear in the folder where you placed the zip file. You can choose a subfolder to add them to by clicking on each individual file 
      file to folder 

    Styles and layout - HTML editor

    This entry relates to styles and layout.

    The HTML editor (also known as the 'html toolbar' or 'text editor') allows you to format text, create links, and insert multimedia. It can be used when setting up your topic site to add instructional or narrative guidelines for students/users. The HTML editor is available to students when they add content to forums, blogs, glossaries, databases and wikis. Despite its name, you do not need to know HTML to use it.

    The default HTML editor is Atto: Atto HTML editor

    The HTML editor is used almost everywhere you can enter text. Most activities incorporate the HTML editor, commonly found in the Description field for an activity or resource. The functions of the HTML editor are particularly useful when adding content to pages, books, labels, forum posts and wikis (or wherever scaffolding is needed).  

    Expand the HTML editor

    By default, the HTML editor is minimised and not all functions are visible. Click the  Show more buttons icon  to view all functions. 

    Atto HTML editor

    You will then see the following options (note that these are updated from time to time).

    HTML editor expanded

    To enlarge the page content box in the HTML editor, click and drag from the bottom right corner.

    make screen bigger

    Editing features

    Listed below are the features of the HTML editor you are most likely to use. There are other features, and the features available may change over time. Click on the link/s to find out how to use the particular feature.

    Icon Purpose
    HTML features Text features – Heading levels, paragraph and pre-formatted styles
    HTML bullet list Bullet / numbered list
    html hyperlinks Hyperlink functions
    html media Media options (emojiimageaudio and video) and table
      HTML editor - some tools  Extra style options (font colourshorizontal rule, columnstext styles)
      html text editing  Equation editor, symbols (eg language/punctuation), clear formatting

    Using emojis 

    The HTML editor includes an Emoji picker.
    Emoji icon

    Click the Emoji picker icon in the HTML editor to view available emojis. You can scroll down through all available emojis, or use the category bar at the top of the emoji picker box to choose from a particular group of emojis. You can also use the Search bar underneath the picker box to find emojis
    Emoji picker

    Styles and layout - insert a horizontal rule

    Show more buttons iconThis entry relates to styles and layout, in particular the HTML editor.

    You may want to separate chunks of text, activities and/or resources with a horizontal rule, like this:

    This style can make it easier to differentiate between sections in a module (or book chapter, page etc) and is a usability feature. 


    To insert a horizontal rule below or above a heading or text, or to create a label that is a horizontal rule:

    1. In the default HTML editor (Atto), click on the Show more buttons icon Show more buttons icon

    2. Place your cursor where you want the horizontal rule to be placed (either at the beginning or end of text) and click on the Horizontal rule icon horizontal rule icon

    3. You can also create a Label that is a horizontal rule. This enables you to move (and duplicate) horizontal rules as they are not attached to text (easy to use in a module)

    Styles and layout - insert (and edit) a table

    Show more buttons iconThis entry relates to styles and layout, in particular the HTML editor.

    Tables are useful for data. Avoid using a table for layout purposes. This is an accessibility issue and will confuse screen readers (for users with a sight disability). If you want to layout content in columns, use the Bootstrap Grid iconBootstrap Grid icon.

    Steps – insert and edit

    1. Click the Table icontable icondisplayed in the HTML editor

    2. Enter the number of rows and columns  To make your table easier to view (particularly useful for complex tables) you can Apply styles and choose the table's Appearance (borders, width etc). 
      table options

    3. Click Create table
    4. Type information into your table
      table example

    5. To edit the table, and for additional table and cell properties, put your cursor in the table and select the Table icon in the HTML editor. Choose an option from the drop-down menu
      edit table

    Styles and layout - insert an image

    Show more buttons iconThis entry relates to styles and layout, in particular the HTML editor.

    Images can add value to your FLO site if they are:

    • meaningful (eg a chart, flow diagram)
    • contextual (eg image relates to content in the module where it is included)
    • consistent in style (eg cartoon-like, real-life, graphic representations, square edges)
    • consistent in size (eg 300 pixels width) and suitable for online (72 dpi = dots per inch) 
    • consistent in location and layout (eg right-aligned, white space around the image)

    Table of contents

    Sourcing and using images

    All images you use should be referenced with the author and source (either a URL or publication title).

    Wherever possible, you should use your own images or source ‘openly licensed’ images where the owner has given upfront permission for reuse (this is not automatic, even for images from the internet). If it is necessary to use other copyrighted images, the university has a paid licence that covers this use as long as you provide the appropriate copyright notice. If using images in a PowerPoint presentation, download the PPT teaching template so that the appropriate copyright notice is automatically included in your slides.

    When uploading a third party image, you should select the relevant licence according to the terms/conditions the image was accessed under. For example, if the image sourced was licensed as ‘All rights reserved’, you should choose ‘All rights reserved’ when you upload it to FLO (see instructions below). If the image is available under a Creative Commons licence, look at the individual licence conditions to ensure you select the correct licence.

    For more information on locating images appropriate for reuse, see the Using images in teaching page in the Copyright for Academic Staff course.

    Creative Commons copyright for free use

    Even if these images are for free use, check the attribution details anyway – you may still see the warning ‘Images may be subject to copyright’, or you may need to attribute the designer/contributor. 

    The Copyright for academic staff FLO site (Copyright and teaching > Using images in teaching) provides information on how to source free images. |

    Use your own image

    While copyright in teaching material belongs to Flinders University (as per the Intellectual Property Policy), it is recommended that you still attribute yourself as the author of images you create so that you can be cited correctly.

    Resize an image

    You can resize images in FLO when adding them, but it only appears as though they are resized – in fact, they remain the same size. Using images that are bigger than they need to be can make your FLO site take longer to load, so to accommodate students with slower internet connections it is best to resize large image files before putting them in FLO.

    We recommend doing this using Snagit, a University-supplied program with that can do everyday image editing. Snagit is available through the IDS Support Portal. Home-use licences are also available (request via ServiceOne)

    Resizing an image in Snagit

    1. Source your images first (as above). You may find it helpful to store them in a folder before uploading to your FLO site, so they are easy to find later on.

    2. Go to the File menu and select Open. You can then find the file on your computer.
      Open is the second item in the file menu

    3.  On the centre-bottom of Snagit, you will see the measurements of your image. Click on the measurements to edit them.
      change the size of your picture by clicking on the measurements next to the zoom
      What do the numbers mean?
      The numbers refer to pixels (or px for short). A pixel is a single dot on your computer's screen. For reference, most desktop computers are 1920 pixels wide, and laptops are generally either 1920 or 1366 wide. The following image shows measurements of 100 pixels.
      each colour is 100 pixels wide
      The size of the images in the grid layout is 210 by 140 pixels.

    4. Once you have settled on a size, save your image (go back to the File menu, and select Save).

    What is an ideal file size?

    The ideal file size depends on the image. For example, if you have an image of the human brain, the image may need to be big enough so students can easily identify its various parts. This, in turn, will make the file size bigger. But if your image is only for decoration it can be smaller, as the teaching materials you've provided are the main focus.

    It's good to remember that some students will have dramatically slower internet speeds than we enjoy on campus. While images definitely have an important role to play in education, it does need to be weighed against the needs of our students in remote Australia and developing countries.

    If you have a jpg file (typically used for photographs) and are finding that the image size is still too large, you can reduce the Quality of the file:
    1. Go to the File menu and select Save As.
      'Save as' is in the FIle menu, next to the 'save' option

    2. Make sure that the Save as type is set to 'JPG', then click on the Options button at the bottom of the window.
      Make sure the 'save as type' is set to jpg, and click on the options button

    3. Try reducing the image quality to 60, and then increase it to 70 or 80 if you find it is too blocky. Click here for an example of a blocky picture. Higher quality/larger images generally can have a lower quality than smaller or previously edited pictures.

    Upload an image

    1. Edit (if required) and store your image (see information above)
    2. Go to the page, book chapter or wherever else you want to insert an image, that has the HTML editor toolbar

    3. Click on the image icon in the toolbar
      image icon

    4. Click Browse repositories... then Choose File to find an image to upload

    5. Choose license from the pull-down menu (if required). See Find free images, or Use your own image for more information. If the image is your own, you can select the default option (All rights reserved). Click Upload this file

    6. Put a description for the image (Describe this image for someone who cannot see it) and choose the Alignment (left or right is a good choice, but the main thing is to be consistent with image placement in your topic site)

    7. Click Save image

    Provide a caption for an image

    You may want to attribute your image if you have found it on the web, or simply provide a caption for what the image represents. There are several ways to do this, outlined below, from easiest to most difficult.

    1. Add a note 

    You could simply put a note (eg Image attribution: details here) in the module or resource (book, page etc) where the image is placed. This is the simplest method.

    2. Use a 2-column layout

    This option is part of the HTML editor in FLO. Note that if you choose this option in a module, the entire module will be in this format, not just the text and image. The other option is to create a label for your image, text and caption, and use the 2-column layout in that. This method means the rest of the module will be in normal (= 1 column) layout.

    1. In your FLO resource/module, in the HTML editor toolbar click on the Show more buttons icon Show more buttons icon

    2. From the toolbar menu (2nd row), select the Bootstrap Grid icon  Bootstrap Grid icon

    3. From the pull-down Bootstrap grid icon menu, choose the layout option 25%, 75% Columns OR 75%, 25% Columns
      columns layout

    4. Place your image in the 25% column and put text in the other column (these instructions assume your image has been resized in image editing software such as Snagit)

    5. Click Save changes

    3. Use bootstrap styling to create a 'container' for your image and caption

    If you comfortable using HTML code, a cleaner way to create a container for your image and caption is to use a bootstrap style for images. This requires you to work in HTML view. To do this, click on the Edit HTML source icon Edit html source icon in the page/book chapter or wherever the HTML editor is available.

    Styles and layout - insert columns in a resource/module

    Show / hide advanced buttons iconThis entry relates to styles and layout, in particular the HTML editor.

    For content layout (eg text/images), you may want to divide a resource/module into two or more columns, or narrow and widen columns. It is good web practice to use the <div> tag to do this, rather than formatting using tables (an accessibility issue). The Bootstrap Grid icon bootstrap grid iconprovides a range of layouts and enables easy applicability.

    The HTML editor is used almost everywhere you can enter text. Most activities incorporate an HTML editor, commonly found in the field where you enter the description, content or text of an activity or resource. The functions of the HTML editor are particularly useful when adding content to pages, books, forum posts, wikis and labels.


    The grid option means that you have 2 distinct columns, so (for example) if you include an image in one column and text in the other, if there is space under either column it will not wrap text.

    1. In your FLO resource/module, in the HTML editor toolbar click on the Show advanced buttons icon Show advanced buttons icon

    2. From the toolbar menu, select the Bootstrap Grid icon  bootstrap grid icon

    3. Choose the layout you want (2 column, 3 column etc)
    4. grid options

    5. Populate the columns with text (example below)
      grid example

    6. Click Save changes

    Styles and layout - label (resource)

    label iconThis entry relates to styles and layout. A label is classified as a 'resource' in FLO.

    A label can be used for layout (eg a horizontal rule), text, images, tables and other information formats. Using a label in your topic homepage allows you to:

    • move it around in the module/topic (ie it's flexible)
    • duplicate it (eg where you want to produce the same heading throughout the module for consistency)
    These features of a label as a layout tool can save you time.


    1. Turn editing on 

    2. Go to the module where you would like the label to appear

    3. Click Add an activity or resource
      Add an activity or resource

    4. Select Label
      label icon

    5. In the Label text area enter your information
      label text

    6. Click Save and return to topic

    Styles and layout - main entry

    Styles and layout are an important part of the user experience, and support the usability and accessibility of multimedia products (eg websites). Look and feel enables user (eg student) engagement. FLO has various tools that facilitate structure and layout.

    Style tools  |  Layout tools  |  Resource types  || Support

    When you set up/layout your topic site, it is always a good idea to test how it looks using the Preview as a student function. 

    You may also find the Leganto for topic coordinators guide useful (especially 'Other useful functions') in terms of the student experience.

    Good practice guides and tip sheets

    Good practice guides and tip sheets have been developed to support quality in both curriculum design and teaching practice. Good practice guides provide a pedagogical overview and tip sheets provide you with practical strategies and ideas for implementation. Links to styles and layout-related resources are provided below. 

    Accessible and inclusive learning | Accessibility and inclusivity in FLO

    Style tools

    The HTML editor is available in any activity and resource (Description field). The toolbar for the HTML editor has many functions (create heading styles, create text styles, add an image, embed a video etc).

    How to (using the HTML editor)

    The HTML editor helps you narrate in your topic

    Layout tools

    Resource types

    In FLO, you can Add an activity or resource to the topic site. Resources include the following, and contribute to the organisation/structure of the site. They can be a form of 'sensemaking' for a user (ie student) – providing 'containers' for content that make navigation easier.

    See Tool options - resources to determine what type is suitable for your needs.

    • Book (create a multi-page resource, with chapters and added navigation)
    • File (upload a PDF, Word file, image etc)
    • Folder (upload a collection of files, add a zip file)
    • Label (display text on a topic's homepage)
    • Page (create a web page, or embed a video)
    • URL (link to an external website)

      Training and support



    Currently, there are no known issues.

    Styles and layout - URL (resource)

    URL iconThis entry relates to styles and layout. A URL is classified as a 'resource' in FLO.

    The URL resource enables a teacher to provide a web link as a topic resource. Anything that is freely available online (eg documents or images) can be linked to; the URL doesn't have to be the homepage of a website. The URL activity is particularly useful for linking to open educational resources (OERs). Linking externally ensures that you are not breaching copyright.

    URLs can also be added to any other resource or activity type through the HTML editor (hyperlink icon).

    Add a URL

    1. Turn editing on 

    2. Go to the module you would like the URL to appear

    3. Click Add an activity or resource
      Add an activity or resource

    4. Click on the URL icon to add it
      add a URL

    5. Add a Name and type or paste the URL in the External URL section
      External URL
    6. Add a Description. Tick the 'Display description on topic page' box if you want the student to see this on the topic main page.

    7. Under Appearance, if an external resource (ie outside FLO, including Flinders University website) leave the Display default as 'New window'. If an internal resource (eg within the topic site), choose one of the other options (automatic, embed, open, in pop-up). Note: Choosing 'embed' is not recommended for copyright reasons (this makes it look as though the link resource belongs in your FLO site) 
      URL display

    8. Click Save and display or Save and return to topic

    Topic administration - preview as a student (switch role to)

    1. Build  |   2. Settings   |  3. Editing   | 4. User management   |  5. Reports   ||  Support  

    This entry relates to styles and layout, topic administration, and any situation where you set up activities and resources.

    FLO allows you to preview your content and activities as a student would. This is particularly useful when checking the setup and design of your topic (the building and testing phases).


    1. In your topic, in the top toolbar, open the drop-down menu next to your name/login
      Profile drop-down menu

    2. Click Switch role to...
      Switch role to

    3. In the next screen, select Student from the list (note that this view may not be perfect – see Moodle: Switch roles for more information) 
      Student role 

    4. You will notice that Student appears under your profile name. You can now navigate around your site as a student would.
      Student role applied

    5. To return to your normal role, click the Return to my normal role link under the drop-down My FLO menu
      Return to normal role

    If an activity or a module has group restrictions, you won't be able to access it if you switch your role to a student, as those restrictions will apply to you too. Hence, if there are restrictions based on groups, you should add yourself to that particular group for a complete student experience. This should be done prior to switching your role to a student.


    • Student Two groups are synchronised regularly, and you will be automatically unenrolled from those groups each time it runs. This doesn't apply to a 'User-created group'.
    • Student Two groups syncing starts at 20 to the hour, every hour and can take up to 15 minutes, so the best timeframe is the first 40 minutes of the hour. Attempting this in the last 20 minutes of the hour will work, but you may be unenrolled mid testing.