Wikipedia defines Predatory publishing (or deceptive publishing) as an exploitative academic publishing business model that involves charging publication fees to authors without checking articles for quality and legitimacy, and without providing editorial and publishing services that legitimate academic journals provide, whether open access or not. A predatory publisher is a journal that would publish anything — usually in return for money .
It can be very difficult to identify these publishers, but the risks you face by publishing in such a journal or presenting at a predatory conference can be far reaching . The risks include:
- Damage to your reputation as a researcher
- Damage to your institution
- Compromising the quality of research output through lack of a genuine peer review process
- You will most likely be unable to publish your article in other journals
- Loss of copyright to your articles as this is retained by the "publisher"
- A loss of research or loss of trust in research
Does not match your field of research
Acknowledges you as a busy and important researcher (doing you a favour)
Gives you a short deadline to decide
Offers you a discount on publishing costs if you submit by the deadline
Charges excessive fees for publication
Publishes your work immediately
Accepts just about anything content-wise 
Common sentences in spam emails from predatory journals
- Dear Prof. Greetings from Journal of…..!!
- Based on your research area and previous publications in the relative field, we cordially welcomes you for the Upcoming Issue of...
- We understand your busy schedule and request you to submit a case report, a short communication or a mini-review with 500 to 900 words…
- We would like to appreciate your contribution towards the scientific community by publishing your precious work. We have gone through your article and found it very knowledgeable.
- We’d be truly gratified if you could share your exploration as a Research article, Review article, Case report, Short communication, Conference proceeding or a Thesis with the Journal.
- Taking your academic background and rich experience in this field into consideration, the Editorial Board believe that you may be the most suitable candidate for this position
- As we feel that the scope of your research falls under our Journal. With good minds, I am cordially inviting eminent authors like you for article submission .
Identifying a predatory publisher
Some indicators of legitimate publishers
- Membership to Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
- Entry in the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)
- Publisher is a member of Open Access Scholarly Publisher Association (OASPA)
- Publisher is a member of the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM)
 Predatory Publishing, Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predatory_publishing Grudniewicz, A., Moher, D., Cobey, K. D., Bryson, G. L., Cukier, S., Allen, K., … Lalu, M. M. (2019). Predatory journals: No definition, no defence. Nature (London), 576(7786), 210–212.
 Mercier, E., Tardif, P.-A., Moore, L., Le Sage, N., & Cameron, P. A. (2018). Invitations received from potential predatory publishers and fraudulent conferences: a 12-month early-career researcher experience. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 94(1108), 104–108. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2017-135097
 Cortegiani, A., Shafer, S.L. “Think. Check. Submit.” to avoid predatory publishing. Critical Care 22, 300 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2244-1
 Byard, R.W. The forensic implications of predatory publishing. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology 12, 391–393 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12024-016-9771-3
 Prater, C. 8 Ways to Identify a Questionable Open Access Journal, AJE Scholar (2022)